5.16.2017

accusations of cultural appropriation are a form of bullying -- and don't reduce racism

I'm increasingly dismayed by accusations of cultural appropriation that are used as weapons, rather than as a tool for raising awareness and educating. Accusations of appropriation have become a form of bullying, a weapon wielded to police and enforce a superficial obeisance to a behavioural code -- while doing nothing to address the underlying issues.

Cultural appropriation is real. It's a valid issue.

I'm not saying that cultural appropriation is not real. It is. I'm not saying claims of appropriation don't have merit. They do.

When I was a child in the 1960s, parents might dress their children as "Indians" for Halloween, without a second thought. Kids played "Cowboys and Indians," dressing up in hats or feathers, with toy guns or tomahawks. Can you imagine if someone had played "Nazis and Jews"? It's completely inappropriate to turn a history of genocide and oppression into costumes and games. That in the 21st century, people are still doing this... it's mind-boggling.

Racist names and logos of sports teams, the Disney version of stories like Pocahontas -- these images are demeaning, degrading, trivializing, and undeniably racist. They should never stand unchallenged. (When it comes to sports teams, names and images should be changed
immediately.)

It’s disturbing to see sacred images commodified and commercialized, reduced to merchandise, devoid of meaning. That's what our consumer society does -- to everything. Religious holidays become secular shopping marathons. Spiritual symbols are sold on infomercials. Leaders of movements who fought for radical change are re-packaged as icons with feel-good slogans.

Using objects of cultural significance in trivial (and usually commercial) ways is a hallmark of consumer culture. Everything is gobbled up by the giant maw of consumerism, then diluted and spit back, stripped of all meaning, in some mass-marketable form.

It can be depressing, and it can be enraging. But shaming people for their ignorance will not stop this dynamic. The proliferation of racialized language, the enforcement of racialized divisions, the policing of thought and expression -- all hallmarks of appropriation shaming -- do not increase understanding. They preclude it. The current opposition to cultural appropriation sounds a lot like calls for segregation.

The hyperbole is out of control. There is no doubt that dressing children in "Indian" costumes is racist. But it is not -- as I have seen it called -- genocidal. When everything is genocide, then nothing is genocide; the word ceases to have meaning. Perhaps this analogy works: racist costumes are to genocide as street harassment is to rape. They are related. They can be placed on the same continuum. But they are not the same thing.

The current climate of accusation is misguided and harmful. Some thoughts.

-- Who owns culture? Expression is not owned. Culture is not owned. It's not owned by Disney, and it's not owned by the Ojibway. The Ojibway people have a much greater claim to their own culture than Disney, but neither can restrict anyone else's use. No one owns cultural influences, and no one can stop anyone else from being influenced.

-- Who appoints the expression police? Freedom of expression is a human right. When that expression is harmful or offensive, then others must exercise their own freedom of expression in opposing it. But bullying people into silence is never OK. What's more, it doesn't even work! You might get the person to stop the behaviour, but is that the only goal? Submission and silence do not equal understanding.

-- The rhetoric has grown increasingly authoritarian. That alone should make it suspect. The accusations emphasize divisions. They create division.

-- Accusations of cultural appropriation trivialize racism. Calling a hairstyle, or food, or a dance "genocidal" is an insult to every culture that has experienced genocide.

-- Some accusers will say that using another culture's symbols is acceptable if one has engaged meaningfully with that culture. So who makes the call? How does the "appropriator" communicate their engagement, and to what tribunal do they submit their evidence?

-- Who decides? Do the self-appointed guardians of culture have the widespread support of the community they claim to represent?

-- The current rhetoric does nothing to bridge divides and promote understanding. Instead, it accuses, shames, and basks in self-righteousness.

-- The accusation of cultural appropriation is often based on assumptions. Are you sure the person you’re accusing has no “right” to wear her hair that way or to wear a First Nations insignia, or are you assuming based on physical appearance?

I recently learned that a co-worker of mine is First Nations. Had she not told me, I never would have known. Can she wear signifiers from her heritage culture without exposing herself to accusations and attacks? Why should she have to explain or justify her choices? And, it follows, why should anyone?

White women wearing African-derived hairstyles are a common source of outcry. What if we learn that the apparently white woman is actually a light-skinned African American? Is it then ok? Pretty soon we're back to the "one drop of blood" rule. We're DNA testing women to see if they were biologically female at birth. We're asking people to identify their heritage in order to be granted access to a culture. Why do we think this is OK?

The world is a heap of broken images

We live in a multicultural, mongrel world where cultures are constantly blending and shifting and taking on new forms. Almost everything in our common culture originated from some other culture, often from cultures that were once despised and marginalized.

Credit is important. Engagement is important. But even without it, no one has the right to police anyone else's culture.

We often hear that art is "stolen" from its sources. It's not that simple.

Artist Damien Hirst recently was accused of appropriating Nigerian art. Hirst admit the influence and credited it -- but apparently didn't say it loudly or often enough. I'm not a Hirst fan by any means, but here an artist is acknowledging an influence, and it's still not enough.

We can see the influence of African masks in Picasso's paintings, but Picasso did not steal the mask images. It is often said that Elvis Presley "stole" African American music and dance.* In fact, Presley was influenced as much by the music of his African American neighbours as the "hillbilly" music of his white neighbours (who were also poor, marginalized people). Those two influences came crashing together in the form of one (part-Native American) Elvis.

That’s often how art happens -- cultures clash, then give birth to something new. That may happen with or without exploitation -- but it can’t not happen. It will never stop happening, nor should we want it to.

Miley Cyrus was apparently lambasted for twerking onstage, a white woman performing a “black dance”. (I learned of this when researching this post. This "news" would not have been on my radar!) So some people are policing who does what dances, apparently ignorant of the way dance styles proliferate. First it's a strange, exotic movement used by an in-crowd, then it is seized on by the mainstream, at which point the in-crowd moves on to the next new thing. Surely we are not saying that some dance moves can only be made by people with dark skin? And if we are -- why is this OK??

Some responses to what's out there

Researching this post, I’ve read many thoughtful articles purporting to explain cultural appropriation, but I disagree with much of what I read.

In How to Explain Cultural Appropriation to Anyone Who Just Doesn’t Get It, I read --
for the first time -- about the supposed cultural appropriation of food. Nigerian jollof rice and Vietnamese pho have been given a supposedly hip twist by some famous chefs.

I don’t doubt that to some Nigerians (like the author) and to some Vietnamese people, this is offensive. To others, I’m willing to bet, it’s amusing. And still to others, it may be flattery. That is almost always the case. Does the writer speak for all Nigerians? Surely not. He speaks for himself and no doubt some Nigerians agree with him.

Jamie Oliver isn't hiding the fact that the dish is Nigerian in origin. He isn't trivializing Nigerian culture. He isn't using sacred symbols in a debased way. He has created some Nigerian food with his own twist.

Just about the last place we should look for cultural appropriation is the dinner table. Almost everything we first-worlders eat originated from some culture somewhere. Last week, I ate hummus, pizza, and sushi. Somehow I doubt the restaurant owners felt I was engaging in cultural appropriation. Can only Polish people eat pierogis? Should we demand that non-Polish people understand the historical struggles of the Polish people before eating kielbasa? Let's not even get into corn -- invented by the aboriginal people of what is now the Americas.

As ridiculous as it may seem to some to turn a simple dish like jollof rice or pho into upscale food, that is a part of our multicultural world that many people celebrate. It's not appropriation.

In this article in Jezebel, the writer wonders if it's all right for her to hang a dreamcatcher in her window. You do not need someone else's permission to decorate your home, nor should you be concerned that the art you love is originally from another culture. Find me some art that’s not.

This article from an aboriginal blog encourages us to learn about the cultures we borrow from, and asks us to stay away from images that are sacred and meaningful in their original culture. For me it was a welcome, compassionate voice in a sea of snark.

Many people are sharing this post from Everyday Feminism: What’s Wrong with Cultural Appropriation? These 9 Answers Reveal Its Harm. I agree with a few of the writer’s points, but I find others very problematic. I'd like to respond to a few points in particular.

It Trivializes Violent Historical Oppression

Sometimes it does. And anything that does that is wrong. The racist team logos and nicknames do. The skirt depicting slave ships do. Decorating your room with a dreamcatcher or eating Jamie Oliver’s jollof does not.

It Lets People Show Love for the Culture, But Remain Prejudiced Against Its People

The writer uses the example of white people wanting to eat authentic Mexican food but not wanting to venture into "sketchy neighbourhoods" to get it. I get this. It can be maddening to run into that kind of classism and racism.

In our multicultural society, we can take what we like and avoid the rest. I think it's something we all do to an extent, including the people who complain about it. However, it is not appropriation. See above: the "yelpers" eating Mexican food are not using sacred symbols in a distorting or demeaning way.

The writer says:
So is every non-Mexican who enjoys a good burrito guilty of cultural appropriation? Say it ain’t so! That would include me and nearly everyone I know.

But now that you know that popularizing “ethnic” food can be one way to harm a group of people while taking from their traditions, you can think about ways to satisfy your international food cravings without participating in that harm.
I find this an enormous leap and assumption. I don't "know" this, I only know this writer thinks so. But more importantly, how can we tell if a burrito-phile is participating in harm or not? We can't. So let's not assume and render judgment.

It Lets Privileged People Profit from Oppressed People’s Labor

Show me one first-world person who is not doing this, every single day, no matter what their background. Is any first-worlder so naive or narcissistic or self-absorbed to think they're not doing this? Where does this woman shop, where does she buy her food? It's not only the privileged that engage in this. In our economy of precarious work, very few people can afford not to profit from the labour of oppressed people.

This is something all first-world activists and revolutionaries should own. We profit from the labour of oppressed people, every time we buy clothes and much of the time we buy food. Believing that this is something other people do -- that appropriators do -- is hypocritical. It's delusional.

It Perpetuates Racist Stereotypes

I am concerned with this. Challenging racist stereotypes is part of my life. It should be part of our daily work for justice. But this --
As Dr. Adrienne Keene of Native Appropriations puts it, “You are pretending to be a race that you are not, and are drawing upon stereotypes to do so.”
-- made my flesh crawl. Pretending to be a race you are not? First, do the appropriators actually pretend to be something they are not? Is Miley Cyrus pretending to African American? And more importantly, I find the language here – race, instead of culture or background or ethnicity – creepily regressive.

White People Can Freely Do What People of Color Were Actively Punished for Doing

Here the writer reveals a fascinating bit of hidden history.
Did you know yoga was once banned in India as part of the “racist and orientalist narratives” that characterized Indian people as perverse heathens who had to conform to Western ways? The bands of yogis who resisted the ban rose up to challenge the oppressive British rule.

These days, it seems like yoga’s everywhere, and practitioners don’t have to challenge the rules of the government to reach it. It can bring up some sensitive feelings to say that non-South Asian people who do yoga are appropriating culture, because the practice benefits many people throughout the US.

But you know who’s not benefiting from the commercialization of yoga like middle class white women are? The South Asian people for whom yoga has a deep cultural and religious significance.
I ask: Do South Asian people oppose the popularization of yoga? There is evidence from one person. This may be the dominant thought in her culture, or it may not. I've heard my South Asian co-workers mention yoga with pride -- a positive piece of our common culture that originated from their original culture. This may or may not be the dominant thought of South Asian people. I wouldn’t presume to know. Neither should this writer or anyone else.

It Prioritizes the Feelings of Privileged People Over Justice for Marginalized People

Freedom of expression is not a feeling, it isn't trivial, and it doesn't only affect privileged people. Just the opposite. Marginalized people are always more affected by laws and customs that curtail freedom of expression. Freedom of expression cannot apply only to certain people and not others. Because again, who decides?

I understand the arguments about power imbalance. But when you police culture, you are appropriating power. What gives you the right?

Let's be honest: many of the accusers, many people happily calling out others on charges of appropriation, are not themselves members of marginalized cultures. Many members of the culture police I see on Facebook and Twitter are North American white folks.

So what do we do?

Almost everyone in our world has a background of mixed origins and cultures. Are we only allowed to use expressions from our original culture? Who decides when an attribute from another culture is now part of the mainstream? Three or four generations after my great-grandparents emigrated from the shtetls of Eastern Europe to the US, am I only allowed to use cultural references they would have recognized? We recognize that question as absurd. But we're willing to say that this white performer shouldn't dance a black-identified dance, and this artist shouldn't use African influences.

Researching for this post, I did find an article expressing the same ideas as I do here: The Dos and Don'ts of Cultural Appropriation, in The Atlantic. After describing how "getting dressed is a daily act of cultural appropriation," using and wearing items gleaned all over the world, Jenni Avins writes:
As I dress in the morning, I deeply appreciate the craftsmanship and design behind these items, as well as the adventures and people they recall. And while I hope I don’t offend anyone, I find the alternative — the idea that I ought to stay in the cultural lane I was born into — outrageous. No matter how much I love cable-knit sweaters and Gruyere cheese, I don’t want to live in a world where the only cultural inspiration I’m entitled to comes from my roots in Ireland, Switzerland, and Eastern Europe.

There are legitimate reasons to step carefully when dressing ourselves with the clothing, arts, artifacts, or ideas of other cultures. But please, let’s banish the idea that appropriating elements from one another’s cultures is in itself problematic.

Such borrowing is how we got treasures such as New York pizza and Japanese denim — not to mention how the West got democratic discourse, mathematics, and the calendar. Yet as wave upon wave of shrill accusations of cultural appropriation make their way through the Internet outrage cycle, the rhetoric ranges from earnest indignation to patronizing disrespect.

And as we watch artists and celebrities being pilloried and called racist, it’s hard not to fear the reach of the cultural-appropriation police, who jealously track who “owns” what and instantly jump on transgressors.

In the 21st century, cultural appropriation — like globalization — isn’t just inevitable; it’s potentially positive. We have to stop guarding cultures and subcultures in efforts to preserve them. It’s naïve, paternalistic, and counterproductive. Plus, it’s just not how culture or creativity work. The exchange of ideas, styles, and traditions is one of the tenets and joys of a modern, multicultural society.

So how do we move past the finger pointing, and co-exist in a way that’s both creatively open and culturally sensitive? In a word, carefully.
Avins then lists her own take on the how to show this care, such as "Don’t Adopt Sacred Artifacts as Accessories," "Appropriation is not a substitute for diversity", "Engage With Other Cultures on More Than an Aesthetic Level," and "Treat a Cultural Exchange Like Any Other Creative Collaboration — Give Credit, and Consider Royalties".

This strikes me as sensitive, compassionate, and mindful of the rights of all parties involved. We have no way of knowing if the appropriator has sufficiently met this criteria or not. So let's not judge them.

------
* I am aware of Sister Rosetta Tharpe. I know quite a bit about blues music and early rock-and-roll. They are not the same thing.

13 comments:

James Redekop said...

I came across an interesting discussion of the "White People Can Freely Do What People of Color Were Actively Punished for Doing" point recently, talking about how white people using African-American vernacular get called "edgy", while black people using it get called "ignorant".

I have to admit, there's one kind of cultural appropriation I really do love: the Japanese use of European cultural symbols & tropes in fiction & culture in ways that are often significantly divorced from their original context. Like the Iotians in A Piece of the Action, but with everything, not just "Chicago Mobs of the Twenties": anime & manga set in "the exotic West" the way Europeans often write fiction set in "the exotic East", with about as much historical accuracy; the wedding chapels decorated with a mish-mash of Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox iconography; etc. Seeing the way these things often butcher the original concepts is a great reminder of just how much the West's exotic tales of far-off lands must have messed up those concepts.

And some of it results in wonderful stuff, from Miyasaki's The Castle of Cagliostro (set in a fictional European country) to Kurosawa's Ran (based on King Lear) and Throne of Blood (based on Macbeth).

It is absolutely possible to incorporate elements from other cultures into your work in a respectful way, seriously or playfully or in-between. And it's worth doing, if you do it right, because it enriches culture as a whole.

Kirby Evans said...

This is a deeply complex issue and impossible to cover properly in the context of a single blog or comment, and I hesitate to even make this comment for that reason. Having said that, I must say that I think you have actually muddied the waters here. The Jenni Avins article with which you conclude is a good example of the intellectual poverty with which many influential white people deal with this issue. I am not sure if Ms Avins intentionally obfuscates here or whether this is a simple intellectual failure on her part, but it is deeply troubling either way. Anyone with any sense understands very clearly that intellectual or cultural influence is not the same thing as cultural appropriation. This is because cultural appropriation (as identified by almost all activists I have seen, talked to, or read) is specifically about power, profit, and control, and how certain underlying and damaging cultural assumptions seep into works of art and cultural artifacts. People life Avrins become apologists for a history of racism and oppression. And, with all due respect to your intentions here, I believe that your post exists in a similar milieu. Let's take as an example, your unfortunate defence of Picasso's appropriation of certain African artifacts, most famously in his painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. I have spent much of my life involved with art education and have seen how Picasso's work is a very good example of how deep the stands of racism in our society go. Les Demoiselles d'Avignon is constantly talked about in a bubble of Western art and meaning with only a passing reference to European colonialism. For example, while Picasso was painting that work the Herero and Namaqua campaign of genocide was taking place, a fact that Picasso was (as far as we know) blissfully unaware of. Les Demoiselles d'Avignon is just as much an artifact of the West's lack of concern for cultural genocide as it is an artifact of Western Art History but I know for a fact that it is almost never talked about that way in art history classes (with few exceptions). What I think that people need to understand is that the work of Picasso or Joseph Conrad or Rudyard Kipling are all interesting and important parts of our history and also DEEPLY RACIST at a very basic level. I don't generally see any racialized activists "bullying" (as you say) concerning cultural appropriation. I see a small number of voices trying to raise awareness about important issues in a society that continues to viscously brutalize and oppress certain groups of people as well as profit off of any aspect of marginalized culture that they possibly can. Our society continues to be, for many people, so brutal and oppressive (as, for example, the daily killings of African Americans by white police officers demonstrate) that it is people who are complaining about some imaginary standard of political correctness, not the racialized activists, who are the real problem here. It's funny that after hundreds of years of brutal behaviour, so many white (and educated) people suddenly think that everyone should "play nice."

laura k said...

White People Can Freely Do What People of Color Were Actively Punished for Doing

There are many examples of this -- but in my view this is not about appropriation. It's about racism and white privilege.

It is absolutely possible to incorporate elements from other cultures into your work in a respectful way, seriously or playfully or in-between.

I would say it's almost impossible not to incorporate elements of other cultures into your work.

James Redekop said...

"I would say it's almost impossible not to incorporate elements of other cultures into your work."

It's not that hard, but the result is usually so bland & unremarkable that it doesn't get much traction.

laura k said...

Thanks for your thoughts, Kirby.

Our society continues to be, for many people, so brutal and oppressive (as, for example, the daily killings of African Americans by white police officers demonstrate) that it is people who are complaining about some imaginary standard of political correctness, not the racialized activists, who are the real problem here. It's funny that after hundreds of years of brutal behaviour, so many white (and educated) people suddenly think that everyone should "play nice."

I 100% agree with you. I'm not complaining about some imaginary standard. Nor do I think that activists should play nice. I think you're arguing against a case I haven't made.

No matter, I didn't expect many people to agree with me. Just wanted to get it out there.

laura k said...

Anyone with any sense understands very clearly that intellectual or cultural influence is not the same thing as cultural appropriation.

I agree that anyone with any sense should understand that. But I found little evidence of that understanding as I researched this post. All of it was thrown together in the same bag, and labeled genocidal.

laura k said...

Hmm, I just realized something. On one level I am asking for people to "play nice" -- on a personal, one-to-one level.

I don't think any individual person can use their membership in a historically marginalized group as an excuse to treat other people with disrespect. On a personal, individual level, we are equals and respect should be mutual. To expect any less of someone because they belong to a historically marginalized group is condescending.

On a wider level, there is the historical power imbalance that must always be taken into account. But if I let you treat me like shit, because you're black or aboriginal or queer, what does that say about how I view blacks, indigenous people, or queers?

Üstün Bilgen-Reinart said...

Ah, this issue and the outrage expressed by Aboriginal artists reveals the deep scars from injuries inflicted on Aboriginal people in Canada.

I am the non-aboriginal writer of a book entitled Night Spirits describing the terrible suffering of a Dene community in Northern Manitoba because of a government-forced re-location in the fifties. The terrible story had come to my attention while I was a TV reporter for the CBC, and I had produced a piece on the survivors at Tadoule Lake, for the Journal.

During my research, I met Ila Bussidor, a young Dene woman who became my friend. Ila desperately wanted the story of her people to be told in a book. She kept urging me to do it. I encouraged her to write this book, told her I would support her. No, I had to do it with her help.

So I finally accepted. The research and the writing of Night Spirits wrre gruelling. For Ila, who helped by introducing me to people at Tadoule Lake, and for I, who wrote even her narrative, who sat with her in a hotel room with Ila for three days to type in English, Ila's grandmother's words, while Ila explained the meaning of those words in English. I spent days at the Hudson's Bay Co. archives and the government archives to research the facts to fill out people's stories.

I had decided at the beginning, when I applied for a Canada Council grant, that I would call Ila "co-author" because the story we were telling belonged to her people. The manuscript we submitted to the publisher had both of our names on the title page, mine first.

It had never occurred to me that the oublisher (University of Manitoba Press) would choose to present Night Spirits as a book written by a Dene author, This is what they did. They changed the order of the names on the book cover, giving Ila Bussidor the place of "first author" although the editor knew I was the only author -- Ila was the"owner" of the story.
Nobody had any qualms about appropriating my voice. Even Ila, a dear friend, was so flattered that she was unable to correct the injustice done to me.

A lawyer friend suggested I could sue the publisher. That would go agains the spirit of the book -- a labour of love for me.
I let it go.
Today, I feel that Night Spirits is a strong book, dedicated to all the Sayısı Dene who suffered, and who must go on because there is no going back.

It represents three years of my full time work. I no longer feel the hurt over the appropriation, but the experience makes me cringe whenever the issue of "appropriation" crops up.

laura k said...

It represents three years of my full time work. I no longer feel the hurt over the appropriation, but the experience makes me cringe whenever the issue of "appropriation" crops up.

As a researcher and writer, I can truly appreciate what you must have gone through. I don't know how I would cope with that.

And to top it off, many would only view this through the lens of white fragility or historical redress.

Thanks for sharing.

impudent strumpet said...

(Psst...the How to Explain Cultural Appropriation to Anyone who Just Doesn't Get It link is broken - it should be http://www.alternet.org/culture/cultural-appropriation-pho-lionel-shriver-jamie-oliver-marc-jacobs )

impudent strumpet said...

But if I let you treat me like shit, because you're black or aboriginal or queer, what does that say about how I view blacks, indigenous people, or queers?

Theory: it means you think they've been having a difficult time. (Generic you, generic they). Like if someone snaps at you but you know that they're in pain or just got in a car accident or have otherwise just been through some shit, you let it go. Same concept, larger scale?

laura k said...

Like if someone snaps at you but you know that they're in pain or just got in a car accident or have otherwise just been through some shit, you let it go. Same concept, larger scale?

It's a generous view, but it's based entirely on assumptions. 1. We assume the person who identifies with a historically marginalized group has been having a difficult time, but not someone who does not so identify. The white/straight/CIS/nondisabled person may be a survivor of abuse or a devastating loss, or who knows what. 2. We assume we know the person's background, orientation, and gender -- that we can assess that visually. 3. We assume the everyone who IDs that way is having a difficult time, which is condescending and patronizing. It means we don't believe they're capable of the same standards of behaviour as people in the dominant group. He can't help it, he's ____.

If we don't use these assumptions, and we still want to cut people a break because they may be recovering or dealing with historical or current difficulities, then we just let everyone treat us like shit. No one has to be respectful to each other because anyone or everyone might be having a difficult time.

laura k said...

Thanks for the link repair!